Born on May 19, 1925, in Omaha,  Nebraska, Malcolm X was a prominent black Malcolm Xnationalist leader who served as a spokesman for the Nation of Islam during the 1950s and ’60s. Due largely to his efforts, the Nation of Islam grew from a mere 400 members at the time he was released from prison in 1952 to 40,000 members by 1960. Articulate, passionate and a naturally gifted and inspirational orator, Malcolm X exhorted blacks to cast off the shackles of racism “by any means necessary,

Early life

Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska. Malcolm was the fourth of eight children born to Louise, a homemaker, and Earl Little, a preacher who was also an active member of the local chapter of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and avid supporter of black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Due to Earl Little’s civil rights activism, the family faced frequent harassment from white supremacist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and one of its splinter factions, the Black Legion. In fact, Malcolm X had his first encounter with racism before he was even born.

“When my mother was pregnant with me, she told me later, ‘a party of hooded Ku Klux Klan riders galloped up to our home,’” Malcolm later remembered. “Brandishing their shotguns and rifles, they shouted for my father to come out.” The harassment continued; when Malcolm X was four years old, local Klan members smashed all of the family’s windows, causing Earl Little to decide to move the family from Omaha to East Lansing, Michigan.

However, the racism the family encountered in East Lansing proved even greater than in Omaha. Shortly after the Littles moved in, in 1929, a racist mob set their house on fire, and the town’s all-white emergency responders refused to do anything. “The white police and firemen came and stood around watching as the house burned to the ground,” Malcolm X later remembered.

Two years later, in 1931, things got much, much worse. Earl Little’s dead body was discovered laid out on the municipal streetcar tracks. Although Malcolm X‘s father was very likely murdered by white supremacists, from whom he had received frequent death threats, the police officially ruled his death a suicide, thereby voiding the large life insurance policy he had purchased in order to provide for his family in the event of his death. Malcolm X‘s mother never recovered from the shock and grief of her husband’s death. In 1937, she was committed to a mental institution and Malcolm X left home to live with family friends.

Troubled Youth

Malcolm X attended West Junior High School, where he was the school’s only black student. He excelled academically and was well liked by his classmates, who elected him class president. However, he later said that he felt that his classmates treated him more like the class pet than a human being.

The turning point in Malcolm X‘s childhood came in 1939, when his English teacher asked him what he wanted to be when he grew up and he answered that he wanted to be a lawyer. His teacher responded, “One of life’s first needs is for us to be realistic … you need to think of something you can be … why don’t you plan on carpentry?” Having thus been told in no uncertain terms that there was no point in a black child pursuing education, Malcolm X dropped out of school the following year, at the age of 15.

After quitting school, Malcolm X moved to Boston to live with his older half-sister, Ella, about whom he later recalled, “She was the first really proud black woman I had ever seen in my life. She was plainly proud of her very dark skin. This was unheard of among Negroes in those days.” Ella landed Malcolm a job shining shoes at the Roseland Ballroom. However, out on his own on the streets of Boston, Malcolm X became acquainted with the city’s criminal underground, soon turning to selling drugs. He got another job as kitchen help on the Yankee Clipper train between New York and Boston and fell further into a life of drugs and crime. Sporting flamboyant pinstriped zoot suits, he frequented nightclubs and dance halls and turned more fully to crime to finance his lavish lifestyle. This phase of Malcolm X‘s life came to a screeching halt in 1946, when he was arrested on charges of larceny and sentenced to ten years in jail.

To pass the time during his incarceration, Malcolm X read constantly, devouring books from the prison library in an attempt make up for the years of education he had missed by dropping out of high school. Also while in prison, he was visited by several siblings who had joined to the Nation of Islam, a small sect of black Muslims who embraced the ideology of black nationalism—the idea that in order to secure freedom, justice and equality, black Americans needed to establish their own state entirely separate from white Americans. Malcolm X converted to the Nation of Islam while in prison, and upon his release in 1952 he abandoned his surname “Little,” which he considered a relic of slavery, in favor of the surname “X”—a tribute to the unknown name of his African ancestors.

Nation Of Islam

Now a free man, Malcolm X traveled to Detroit, Michigan, where he worked with the leader of the Nation of Islam, Elijah Muhammad, to expand the movement’s following among black Americans nationwide. Malcolm X became the minister of Temple No. 7 in Harlem and Temple No. 11 in Boston, while also founding new temples in Harford and Philadelphia. In 1960, he established a national newspaper, Muhammad Speaks, in order to further promote the message of the Nation of Islam.

Articulate, passionate and a naturally gifted and inspirational orator, Malcolm X exhorted blacks to cast off the shackles of racism “by any means necessary,” including violence. “You don’t have a peaceful revolution,” he said. “You don’t have a turn-the-cheek revolution. There’s no such thing as a nonviolent revolution.” Such militant proposals—a violent revolution to establish an independent black nation—won Malcolm X large numbers of followers as well as many fierce critics.

Due primarily to the efforts of Malcolm X, the Nation of Islam grew from a mere 400 members at the time he was released from prison in 1952, to 40,000 members by 1960.

By the early 1960s, Malcolm X had emerged as a leading voice of a radicalized wing of the Civil Rights Movement,

presenting an alternative to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s vision of a racially integrated society achieved by peaceful means. Dr. King was highly critical of what he viewed as Malcolm X‘s destructive demagoguery. “I feel that Malcolm has done himself and our people a great disservice,” King once said.

Break With Elijah Muhammad

Philosophical differences with King were one thing; a rupture with Elijah Muhammad proved much more traumatic. In 1963, Malcolm X became deeply disillusioned when he learned that his hero and mentor had violated many of his own teachings, most flagrantly by carrying on many extramarital affairs; Muhammad had, in fact, fathered several children out of wedlock. Malcolm’s feelings of betrayal, combined with Muhammad’s anger over Malcolm’s insensitive comments regarding the assassination of President JohnF. Kennedy, led Malcolm X to leave the Nation of Islam in 1964.

That same year, Malcolm X embarked on an extended trip through North Africa and the Middle East. The journey proved to be both a political and spiritual turning point in his life. He learned to place the American Civil Rights Movement within the context of a global anti-colonial struggle, embracing socialism and pan-Africanism. Malcolm X also made the Hajj, the traditional Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, during which he converted to traditional Islam and again changed his name, this time to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.

After his epiphany at Mecca, Malcolm X returned to the United States less angry and more optimistic about the prospects for peaceful resolution to America’s race problems. “The true brotherhood I had seen had influenced me to recognize that anger can blind human vision,” he said. “America is the first country … that can actually have a bloodless revolution.” Tragically, just as Malcolm X appeared to be embarking on an ideological transformation with the potential to dramatically alter the course of the Civil Rights Movement, he was assassinated.

Death And Legacy

On the evening of February 21, 1965, at the Audubon Ballroom in Manhattan, where Malcolm X was about to deliver a speech, three gunmen rushed the stage and shot him 15 times at point blank range. Malcolm X was pronounced dead on arrival at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital shortly thereafter. He was 39 years old. The three men convicted of the assassination of Malcolm X were all members of the Nation of Islam: Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson.

In the immediate aftermath of Malcolm X‘s death, commentators largely ignored his recent spiritual and political transformation and criticized him as a violent rabble-rouser. However, Malcolm X‘s legacy as a civil rights hero was cemented by the posthumous publication in 1965 of The Autobiography of Malcolm X: As Told to Alex Haley.

At once a harrowing chronicle of American racism, an unsparing self-criticism and an inspiring spiritual journey, the book, transcribed by the acclaimed author of Roots, instantly recast Malcolm X as one of the great political and spiritual leaders of modern times. Named by TIME magazine one of 10 “required reading” non-fiction books of all-time, The Autobiography of Malcolm X has truly enshrined Malcolm X as a hero to subsequent generations of radicals and activists.

Perhaps Malcolm X‘s greatest contribution to society was underscoring the value of a truly free populace by demonstrating the great lengths to which human beings will go to secure their freedom. “Power in defense of freedom is greater than power in behalf of tyranny and oppression,” he stated. “Because power, real power, comes from our conviction which produces action, uncompromising action.”

Personal Life

In 1958, Malcolm X married Betty Sanders, a fellow member of the Nation of Islam. The couple had six children together, all daughters: Attallah (b. 1958), Qubilah (b. 1960), Ilyasah (b. 1963), Gamilah (b. 1964) and twins Malaak and Malikah (b. 1965). Sanders later became known as Betty Shabazz, and she became a prominent civil rights and human rights activist in her own right in the aftermath of her husband’s death.

In May 2013, Malcolm X‘s grandson, Malcolm Shabazz—son of the civil rights leader’s second daughter with wife Betty Shabazz, Qubilah Shabazz—was beaten to death in Mexico City, near the Plaza Garibaldi. He was 28 years old. According to a report by the Los Angeles Times, police believe Malcolm Shabazz’s death was the result of a “robbery gone wrong.”

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Riddick  is an upcoming science fiction action film, the third installment in the The Chronicles of Riddick film series. 




Left for dead on a sun-scorched planet, Riddick finds himself up against an alien race of predators. Activating an emergency beacon alerts two ships: one carrying a new breed of mercenary, the other captained by a man from Riddick’s past.


With his enemies right where he wants them, Riddick unleashes a vicious attack of vengeance before returning to his home planet of Furya to save it from destruction.


Director: David Twohy
Writers: David Twohy and Jim Wheat
Stars: Vin Diesel, Karl Urban, Katee Sackhoff | and others.


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This is an incredible performance of Sanddorn balance by Miyoko Shida Rigolo.


Miyoko Shida Rigolo

The performance begins with her balancing a single white feather on her finger, then placing it atop a stripped palm rib, which is then placed upon another and so forth. It’s deceptively simple and utterly awe-inspiring to watch as she flawlessly balances each and every element of the construct on the next. I think I must have held my breath through almost half of the video when I watched it the first time!

I especially love the finale because it shows how delicate the balance of the palm fronds and feather really is.









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The first official picture from Neill Blomkamp’s “Elysium ” has been released, and it presents a startling sight: a bald Matt Damon.

The Academy Award winner shaved his head for the starring role in the sci-fi thriller
Damon actually revealed the look last year while doing press for “Contagion,” where he called the makeover “liberating.

” Since then, a few unofficial set photos cropped up from “Elysium,” but this photo represents the first official look at Damon in the film.

Elysium” seems to tread familiar ground as Blomkamp’s previous film, “District 9,” as its set in 2159, where the rich live on a “pristine man-made space station” while the poor are stuck on an “overpopulated, ruined earth.” Strict immigration laws preserve the . balance, and Damon will be playing Max, a man who takes a mission that could “not only save his life” but also “bring equality to these polarized worlds.

” That sounds every bit as thinly-veiled as the South African apartheid allegory presented in “District 9″

Damon’s going bald for the film might not be quite as staggering Anne Hathaway or Charlize Theron’s shorn locks, but it represents an interesting transition all the same. He’s an actor that’s seemingly shied away from big-budget sci-fi stuff; while he of course starred in action films like “The Bourne Identity,” something like “Elysium” feels a little bit like Damon getting outside of his comfort zone.

However, Damon isn’t a stranger to transformations, as he gained weight for Steven Soderbergh twice: first in “The Informant” and again in “Contagion.

Elysium” seems to be putting him into a square-jawed, big gun-toting tough guy, which is a little new for him, but Max’s actual characterization is unknown at this time
Fans will have to wait until next March to get the complete picture when “Elysium” is released into theater.

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There is no doubt about the fact that Pinterest  is causing quite a stir on the internet.


It is the fastest website in history to break the 10 million users a month mark and currently has over 26 million unique visitors. The surprising thing about these figures is that the demographic appears to be mainly women in the 18 – 35 age bracket. Great news if you’re internet based business is centred around a physical product which would appeal to this age group such as jewellery, clothing etc.

 Pinterest  describes itself as an online pinboard where you curate and share things you love, but it’s a bit more than that.

It’s really more of a photo based social network which allows the user to create folders of photos called “Pin Boards”. It is possible to pin different images gathered from the internet using the easy to use interface provided. The experience can become highly interactive as users can “re-pin” pins to their own pin boards as well as “like” pins.

Let’s investigate how to get the most out of Pinterest  as an internet marketing tool.

Firstly, Pinterest has now become a bit more business friendly and you can open a business account or convert an existing account.
The set up of your page is crucial to the success of your marketing effort.
The first thing people will see is the “about” section.
Let people know as precisely as possible who you are, what you do and above all how you can serve them. As this section is indexed by search engines, make sure you include some well researched keywords.
Pinterest allows you to upload an image and at this point you have to make a decision whether to include a suitable photograph or not.
It depends what you are selling but there is truth in the saying that people buy from people, so it’s probably best to opt for a decent headshot of the person behind the business.

When setting up your boards, make sure you place the content that best sums up your ethos on the top two rows preferably in the centre.
Some keywords in the description make for better searchability.

A great way to increase your follower numbers is to create some boards on topics outside the narrow confines of your business.
Food, home and travel are examples of popular areas on Pinterest which will attract pinners who might not have discovered you.
If you are a sole trader, this also helps to give others an insight into the personality behind the name.

Pinterest Traffic
Another useful tip is to include other people’s content that you like next to yours.
Pinterest is above all a social network so it’s best not to promote yourself or your business single mindedly. If you can become part of the Pinterest community, you will enjoy much more success. Inevitably, there are some potential pitfalls to look out for.
Many sites will have restrictions on how their images can be displayed
As stated previously, too much promotion can be bad for your commercial health and could get your account closed.

Finally, it is extremely difficult to build a business around Pinterest  alone.

It is most successful when used along with other social networks and online marketing methods.

Pinterest is going through a growth spurt at the moment but it’s difficult to see if this will be sustained over the long term.
However, there’s lots to like about this social network.A lot of different niches and websites can benefit from the use of Pinterest as a means of earning website traffic and followers, but it is important for you to follow a few tips in order to optimize Pinterest so that it will work well for you.

Take advantage of the “About” section on your Pinterest profile.

A lot of people rush through the description on their profiles, but this is the description that will come up on search engines. It can also encourage people to check out your “Pins
Although you might not think that it will make a difference if you use the default logo instead of a personal picture, a lot of people might think that you are a spammer if you don’t change it. Also, your logo or picture gives you the opportunity to personalize your page, and people like to see sites that are personalized in the vastness of the Internet.
Therefore, you should change the picture as soon as possible if you want to optimize Pinterest to work for you.
Whether you should use a logo or a personal picture will depend on what your page is used for and what you want to gain from it, but always make sure that the picture that you use is appropriate. Instead, create other boards about popular topics that interest you, even if they have nothing to do with your website or brand, so that you can really connect with other users and optimize Pinterest to work for you the most.
Take the opportunity to be social if you want to optimize Pinterest so that it works for you
Spend time commenting on other people’s pins, “liking” pins and more.

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